A 1.22 mW 2.4 GHz PLL Using a Single-Ring-Oscillator-Based Integrator With Background Frequency Calibration

Authors: Guan-Yu Su; Shen-Iuan Liu

Introduction: “By using time-based integral control, a conventional PLL achieves the advantages of power efficiency and small area.

Two additional ring oscillators (ROs) are required to realize this time-based integral control. In addition, there is a frequency error between two ROs, which is sensitive to process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations.

A PLL using a single-RO-based integrator is presented to further the power efficiency and area overhead.

The frequency of the RO in a single-RO-based integrator is calibrated to tolerate the PVT variations.

This PLL is fabricated in 40-nm CMOS process which has an area of 0.0011mm2 and its integrated root-mean-square jitter is 1.5psrms.

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